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Grupo Rubymar Marthyns

Público·1 membro

Associated State

This report is the third in an ongoing series of assessments of the condition of coral reef ecosystems in the United States and Pacific Freely Associated states, and the second report to focus specifically on summarizing the results of coral reef ecosystem monitoring activities carried out by federal, state, territorial, commonwealth, private, academic, and nongovernmental partners (Figure A). The chapter authors, who are scientists and managers directly involved in local efforts to conserve and monitor coral reef ecosystems, present data describing the status of water quality, benthic habitats, and the coral reef-associated biological communities and evaluate the impacts of thirteen major threats to coral reefs identified in the National Coral Reef Action Strategy. The authors then briefly summarize the current conservation management activities being implemented in the 15 jurisdictions and provide conclusions and recommendations for future action. This edition of the report also contains a chapter describing some of the many National Level Activities that contribute to coral reef conservation and a National Summary chapter that is based on a questionnaire completed by the local report coordinators and/or writing team members.

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In the 1980s, the United States negotiated Compacts of Free Association (COFA) with each of these countries, now called the Freely Associated States (FAS). The Compacts established each FAS as a sovereign state with the right to self-determination and self-governance. All three assign the United States full responsibility for the security and defense of the FAS, which includes strategic denial over land, airspace, and territorial seas; this is the right to deny third countries access to or use of the FAS territories for military purposes and the right to establish US bases and defense facilities in the FAS. In exchange for the substantial strategic security and military value that the security provisions afford, the FAS receive key benefits, such as the right to move freely and work in the United States and its territories, as well as economic assistance and access to some US federal program services.

The Compact relationships are rooted not only in shared respect and deep cultural and economic ties between the FAS and United States but also in mutually recognized benefits and obligations. The ties are multifaceted and complex. Through the Compacts and the long history preceding them, the United States and FAS have developed societal connections that are a key reason for the durability of the free association model at the heart of the Compacts, which should not be viewed as purely transactional arrangements but instead as expressions of shared democratic values and decades of history. Today, many FAS citizens have close personal and economic ties to the United States, including family members who live and work in US states and territories. FAS citizens enlist in the US armed forces at a higher rate than US citizens and are more likely to pursue educational opportunities in the United States than in any other country. FAS citizens also overwhelmingly consume American media and buy American brands.

Federal and state officials as well as representatives of institutions of higher learning should seek to expand the availability of educational opportunities for FAS citizens. People-to-people connections of the kind fostered through study abroad are critical in shaping elite networks that link business and political leaders across national lines. At present, the United States funds scholarships for FAS citizens who are eligible for Pell Grants. However, FAS citizens are not eligible for work-study programs at US colleges and universities. Going forward, US institutions should invest in developing more opportunities for FAS citizens by funding more scholarships and expanding their access to US programs.

Admiral (Ret.) Philip Davidson, co-chair, former commander, US Indo-Pacific CommandBrigadier General (Ret.) David Stilwell, co-chair, former assistant secretary of state for the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific AffairsRobert Underwood, co-chair, former delegate from Guam to the House of Representatives; former president, University of Guam

Senior Study Group members express their support for the general findings and recommendations the group reached but do not necessarily endorse every statement or judgment in the report. They participated in the study group in their personal capacities; the views expressed are their own and do not necessarily represent the views of their institutions or employers.

Over the last decade, China has become more engaged internationally, including in conflict zones and fragile states of strategic interest to the United States. From civil wars in neighboring countries, such as Afghanistan and Myanmar, to more distant conflicts in Africa, China is becoming an increasingly important player in regional and international efforts to mitigate conflict. In countries where China exerts a strong influence, its engagement can have a substantial impact on local and international efforts to curb violence and extremism.

Attention will now turn to renewing the annual economic support arrangements embedded in all the COFAs. Starting in fiscal year 2023, these will expire for FSM and the Marshall Islands, and for Palau in fiscal year 2024. All FAS countries expect the annual economic assistance components of their COFAs to be renewed, but FSM seems most concerned. FSM is the only state that diplomatically recognizes China over Taiwan, participates in BRI, and was accorded a state visit to Beijing. This had a lasting positive effect on FSM's perception of China.

An increase in federal COVID-19 related funding and an increase in Medicaid funds led to an overall increase in health center funding in 2020 compared to 2019. Federal grants and Medicaid make up the majority of revenues for health centers in these regions. Medicaid made up close to 50% of health center funding and federal Section 330 grants made up a quarter of funding in the territories and FAS in 2020 (compared to 39% and 14% respectively in the U.S. states). Health centers in the territories and FAS received over $28 million in COVID-19 related funding in 2020, while the territories received an overall increase of 22% in Medicaid funding through additional federal funding appropriated by Congress. These enhanced funds helped offset revenue losses from reduced patient utilization.

View survey results for the United States, a state, a territory or freely associated state, or selected location. To view U.S. data, click the View U.S. Data link. To choose a specific location, make a selection in the dropdown menu or click a location on the map.

DHS is working closely with all states and territories to provide assistance and guidance to achieve full compliance by the May 7, 2025 deadline. As of March 26, 2021, 55 states and territories are fully compliant with the REAL ID requirements, and all states are on track to begin issuing compliant licenses and IDs by the May 7, 2025 deadline.

Starting May 7, 2025, every state and territory resident will need to present a REAL ID compliant license/ID, or another acceptable form of identification, for accessing federal facilities, entering nuclear power plants, and boarding commercial aircraft. The card, itself, must be REAL ID compliant unless the resident is using an alternative acceptable document such as a passport. The Act does not require individuals to present identification where it is not currently required to access a federal facility (such as to enter the public areas of the Smithsonian) nor does it prohibit an agency from accepting other forms of identity documents (such as a U.S. passport or passport card).

For example, The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recently finalized an update to its DoD-Wide installation security policy and is in the process of no longer accepting noncompliant marked cards across all of its facilities and installations. However, DoD will continue to accept state-issued noncompliant unmarked "legacy" cards until the May 7, 2025 deadline.

REAL ID allows compliant states to issue driver's licenses and identification cards where the identity of the applicant cannot be assured or for whom lawful presence is not determined. In fact, some states currently issue noncompliant cards to undocumented individuals. Noncompliant cards must clearly state on their face (and in the machine readable zone) that they are not acceptable for REAL ID purposes and must use a unique design or color to differentiate them from compliant cards. DHS cautions against assuming that possession of a noncompliant card indicates the holder is an undocumented individual, given that individuals may obtain noncompliant cards for many reasons unrelated to lawful presence. Possession of a noncompliant card does not indicate that the holder is an undocumented individual, given that individuals may obtain noncompliant cards for many reasons unrelated to lawful presence.

DHS makes determinations that a state is meeting the minimum requirements of the REAL ID Act based upon certifications submitted by the state to the Secretary of Homeland Security. The REAL ID regulation prescribes how these certifications are to be made. In particular, the REAL ID regulation requires that states recertify their compliance with the Act every three years, on a rolling basis, as determined by DHS.

DHS recognizes that each jurisdiction is unique and needs flexibility to tailor an exceptions process to meet its individual needs and circumstances. An exceptions process helps states address unique situations where individuals, for reasons beyond their control, are unable to present one or more of the identity documents listed in the regulations. For example, following a natural disaster, for reasons beyond a person's control, documents necessary to establish identity and lawful status may no longer be readily available or obtainable. In such cases, states may need to rely on alternate documents to establish their identity or U.S. citizenship. 041b061a72


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